See also the response by McIntyre and McKitrik.
1989-1993, Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg: Possible climate change is currently estimated with numerical models that simulate the present and the future earth climate. Their skilful resolution is nowadays of the order 2000 Km and therefore they cannot properly the local and regional features that are important to study the impact of climate change on the environment. One way to overcome this scale mismatch is statistical downscaling techniques: A statistical transfer function is estimated by analysing observations of the large-scale circulation and the regional climate. This transfer function can be used to translate the changes of the atmospheric circulation simulated by a climate model to changes of the regional climate. The transfer functions may be designed by means of multivariate linear techniques, such as canonical correlation, or by nonlinear techniques, such as analogue methods, classification methods or neural networks.
1984-1988, University of Zaragoza, Spain. Ph.D. Thesis: Ionic crystals are normally transparent to visible light. However the presence of metallic impurities or lattice point defects may change the optical properties of these crystals by inducing absortion and emission bands in the visible and infra-red spectrum. These crystals may then be used, for instance, as active laser materials. Since the optical and magnetic properties of these impurities and point defects are very sensitive to their microscopic environment, these properties can also provide valuable information of their local crystalline structure and about structural phase transitions in the host lattice. With magnetic resonance techniques it is possible to estimate with high accuracy the bonding angles of the impurity and its neighbouring ions. Sometimes the distances between them can also be estimated, thus providing a full three-dimensional picture of the distorted lattice surrounding the impurity.